The amine is an organic compound in which a hydrogen atom of ammonia is replaced by a hydrocarbon group. Compounds formed by substituting one, two or three hydrogen atoms in an ammonia molecule with a hydrocarbon group are referred to as a first amine (primary amine), a second amine (secondary amine), and a third amine (tertiary amine), respectively. Their general formula is RNH2 - primary amine, R2NH - secondary amine, R3N - tertiary amine. Amines are widely found in the biological world and have extremely important physiological effects. Therefore, most drugs contain an amine functional group - an amino group. Proteins, nucleic acids, many hormones, antibiotics, and alkaloids all contain amino acids and are complex derivatives of amines.
The amine is a hydrocarbyl derivative of ammonia, which can be classified into primary amine, secondary amine, tertiary amine according to the number of hydrocarbon groups attached to the nitrogen atom in the amine. If the number of hydrocarbon groups is connected to the four hydrocarbon groups, it is called quaternary ammonium compound. If the number of hydrocarbon groups is one, we call it primary amine.
According to the number of amino groups in the primary amine, it can be further divided into monoamines, diamines, and polyamines. Depending on the hydrocarbon group to which the nitrogen atom is attached, it can be classified into primary aliphatic amine and primary aromatic amine.
Primary amines are weakly alkaline, fatty primary amines are more alkaline than ammonia, and aromatic primary amines are generally less alkaline than fatty primary amines. Primary amines are a kind of active compounds. They can participate in many reactions as nucleophiles due to the presence of unco-electron pairs on the nitrogen atom, such as alkylation, acylation, sulfonylation, reaction with carbonyl compounds, oxidation reaction, etc. At the same time, it can react with nitrous acid to form various compounds.
Main primary includes N-Pentylamine, Hexylamine, Octylamine, 2-Ethyl-hexylamine, Decylamine and so on.